Rôle de la sélénoprotéine P et de la glutathion peroxydase 3 dans le phénotype des macrophages et la régénération musculaire

Abstract : Macrophages can go through transitions between pro and anti-inflammatory states, one process called polarization skewing. Molecules secreted by macrophages are able to induce different metabolic profiles. Transcriptomic analyses of human pro and anti-inflammatory macrophages identified new molecules with a secretory peptide. Selenoproteins were one of the most expressed in anti-inflammatory macrophages. Thus, we evaluate the respective roles of selenoproteins on macrophage polarization parameters in inflammation and their implication in regenerative processes. Once established that cytokines largely spur macrophage transitions we used IFN-gamma and IL10 to explore these different inflammatory profiles in vitro. Bone marrow derived macrophages from WT and selenoproteins KO models were polarized with both cytokines to obtain a pro and anti-inflammatory phenotype, respectively. Our results showed that without selenoproteins, macrophages had impairment of their capacity to switch from one activation state to another as compared with the control, emphasizing the importance of these molecules to control macrophage transitional states. The cardiotoxin injury model was use to in vivo examine the macrophages capability to switch their phenotype during skeletal muscle regeneration. Three days after an injury pro is replaced by anti-inflammatory population, as has already been shown by flow cytometry analysis. However, macrophages from selenoproteins KO presented three-fold increase of pro-inflammatory macrophages while anti-inflammatory population decreased, indicating that they did not acquire an anti-inflammatory phenotype. In addition, we evaluate the macrophage function in absence of selenoproteins. After polarization with cytokines, experiments demonstrated that WT anti-inflammatory macrophages promoted myoblast fusion, whereas selenoproteins KO were not able to sustain their fusion. In conclusion, selenoproteins modulate macrophage polarization implicating their ability to acquire different phenotypes in vitro and in vivo as well as their effects on myoblast fusion
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Jessica de Oliveira Bouvière. Rôle de la sélénoprotéine P et de la glutathion peroxydase 3 dans le phénotype des macrophages et la régénération musculaire. Biologie cellulaire. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE1167⟩. ⟨tel-02437485⟩

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