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Plant genera Cannabis and Humulus share the same pair of well-differentiated sex chromosomes

Abstract : We recently described, in Cannabis sativa, the oldest sex chromosome system documented so far in plants (12-28 Myo). Based on the estimated age, we predicted that it should be shared by its sister genus Humulus, which is known to also possess XY chromosomes.  Here, we used transcriptome sequencing of a F1 family of Humulus lupulus to identify and study the sex chromosomes in this species using the probabilistic method SEX-DETector.  We identified 265 sex-linked genes in H. lupulus, which preferentially mapped to the C. sativa X chromosome. Using phylogenies of sex-linked genes, we showed that a region of the sex chromosomes had already stopped recombining in an ancestor of both species. Furthermore, as in C. sativa, Y-linked gene expression reduction is correlated to the position on the X chromosome, and highly Y degenerated genes showed dosage compensation.  We report, for the first time in Angiosperms, a sex chromosome system that is shared by two different genera. Thus, recombination suppression started at least 21-25 My ago, and then (either gradually or step-wise) spread to a large part of the sex chromosomes (~70%), leading to a degenerated Y chromosome.
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https://hal-univ-lyon1.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03254304
Contributor : Lauriane Pillet <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, June 8, 2021 - 4:57:54 PM
Last modification on : Monday, September 6, 2021 - 2:58:01 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, September 9, 2021 - 8:21:18 PM

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Djivan Prentout, Natasa Stajner, Andreja Cerenak, Theo Tricou, Celine Brochier-Armanet, et al.. Plant genera Cannabis and Humulus share the same pair of well-differentiated sex chromosomes. New Phytologist, Wiley, 2021, 231 (4), pp.1599-1611. ⟨10.1111/nph.17456⟩. ⟨hal-03254304⟩

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