A severe Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia inducing an acute antibody-mediated pulmonary graft rejection

Abstract : A 40-year-old cystic fibrosis woman with a history of double-lung transplantation 2 years previously was admitted for a progressive respiratory distress. Physical examination revealed fever (39 degrees C) and diffuse bilateral lung crackles. Laboratory findings included severe hypoxemia and inflammatory syndrome. Bronchoalveolar lavage and serological test were positive for mycoplasma pneumonia. As the patient did not improve after 3 days of antibiotics and donor-specific HLA antibodies had been detected, an acute antibody-mediated graft rejection was treated with high-dose corticosteroids, plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab. The patient rapidly improved. Unfortunately, 6 months after this episode, she developed a bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome with a dependence to noninvasive ventilator leading to the indication of retransplantation. This case illustrates the possible relationship between infection and humoral rejection. These two diagnoses should be promptly investigated and systematically treated in lung transplant recipients.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, July 23, 2019 - 4:58:01 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, July 24, 2019 - 1:32:49 AM

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S. Demir, J. Saison, A. Senechal, Jean-François Mornex. A severe Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia inducing an acute antibody-mediated pulmonary graft rejection. Lung India, 2017, 34 (1), pp.85-87. ⟨10.4103/0970-2113.197104⟩. ⟨hal-02191905⟩

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