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Frequency of bacteriuria in dogs with chronic kidney disease: A retrospective study of 201 cases

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Studies have shown an increased prevalence of positive urine culture (PUC) in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD); no information is available in dogs. OBJECTIVES: To document the PUC frequency in a cohort of dogs with CKD, determine risk factors for PUC, and identify associations between clinicopathologic data and PUC. ANIMALS: Two hundred one client-owned dogs with CKD. METHODS: Retrospective, observational study. Dogs recruited from 2 veterinary teaching hospitals were included if they were diagnosed with CKD and had a culture performed on urine collected by cystocentesis. The PUC frequency was calculated, multivariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors, and associations with clinicopathologic data were investigated. RESULTS: Sixty-five dogs (32%) with CKD had PUC, including 8 (28%) in International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stage 1; only 8% showed signs of a urinary tract infection. Escherichia coli was the most common isolate (67%). A PUC was more likely in females (odds ratio [OR], 3.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.67-6.37; P \\textless .001) than males and in dogs with isosthenuria (OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.24-5.03; P = .01) than in dogs with urine-specific gravity 1.013-1.024. A positive leukocyte esterase test and microorganisms found by urine sediment analysis were significantly associated with PUC (both P \\textless .001). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Dogs with CKD, even IRIS stage 1, have a high frequency of PUC and most cases are asymptomatic. A urine culture could be considered in the routine evaluation of dogs with CKD, but the clinical relevance of a PUC remains unknown and needs further evaluation.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, May 26, 2020 - 6:09:34 AM
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A. Lamoureux, F. da Riz, J. Cappelle, Henri-Jean Boulouis, Ghita Benchekroun, et al.. Frequency of bacteriuria in dogs with chronic kidney disease: A retrospective study of 201 cases. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2019, 33 (2), pp.640-647. ⟨10.1111/jvim.15434⟩. ⟨hal-02191895⟩

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