S. Ohno, So much "junk" DNA in our genome, Brookhaven Symp Biol, vol.23, pp.366-370, 1972.

C. P. Ponting and R. C. Hardison, What fraction of the human genome is functional?, Genome research, vol.21, pp.1769-1776, 2011.

M. Kellis, Defining functional DNA elements in the human genome, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.111, pp.6131-6138, 2014.

C. Peng, Long-range correlations in nucleotide sequences, Nature, vol.356, p.168, 1992.

K. Gao and J. Miller, Algebraic distribution of segmental duplication lengths in whole-genome sequence self-alignments, PloS one, vol.6, p.18464, 2011.

F. Massip and P. F. Arndt, Neutral evolution of duplicated DNA: an evolutionary stick-breaking process causes scale-invariant behavior, Physical review letters, vol.110, p.148101, 2013.

F. Massip, M. Sheinman, S. Schbath, and P. F. Arndt, How Evolution of Genomes Is Reflected in Exact DNA Sequence Match Statistics, Molecular biology and evolution, vol.32, pp.524-535, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02634213

R. N. Mantegna, Linguistic features of noncoding DNA sequences, Physical review letters, vol.73, p.3169, 1994.

L. Hsieh, L. Luo, F. Ji, and H. Lee, Minimal model for genome evolution and growth, Physical review letters, vol.90, p.18101, 2003.

S. S. Sindi, B. R. Hunt, and J. A. Yorke, Duplication count distributions in DNA sequences, Physical Review E, vol.78, p.61912, 2008.

B. Chor, Genomic DNA k-mer spectra: models and modalities, Genome Biol, vol.10, p.108, 2009.

J. Estoup and . Stenographiques, , 1916.

G. K. Zipf, Human behavior and the principle of least effort, 1949.

M. E. Newman, Power laws, pareto distributions and Zipf 's law. Contemporary physics, vol.46, pp.323-351, 2005.

H. S. Heaps, Information retrieval: Computational and theoretical aspects, 1978.

M. Gimona, Protein linguistics-a grammar for modular protein assembly?, Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol.7, pp.68-73, 2006.

C. Loose, K. Jensen, I. Rigoutsos, and G. Stephanopoulos, A linguistic model for the rational design of antimicrobial peptides, Nature, vol.443, pp.867-869, 2006.

A. K. Konopka and C. Martindale, Noncoding dna, Zipf 's law, and language, Science, vol.268, pp.785-790, 1995.

P. Niyogi and R. C. Berwick, A note on Zipf 's law, natural languages, and noncoding DNA regions, 1995.

C. Chatzidimitriou-dreismann, R. Streffer, and D. Larhammar, Lack of biological significance in the 'linguistic features' of noncoding DNA-a quantitative analysis, Nucleic acids research, vol.24, pp.1676-1681, 1996.

N. E. Israeloff, M. Kagalenko, and K. Chan, Can Zipf distinguish language from noise in noncoding DNA?, Physical Review Letters, vol.76, p.1976, 1996.

S. Bonhoeffer, No signs of hidden language in noncoding DNA, Physical review letters, vol.76, p.1977, 1996.

G. Attard, A. Hurworth, and J. Jack, Language-like features in DNA: transposable element footprints in the genome, Europhysics Letters), vol.36, p.391, 1996.

A. A. Tsonis, J. B. Elsner, and P. A. Tsonis, Is DNA a language, Journal of theoretical Biology, vol.184, pp.25-29, 1997.

M. Csürös, L. Noé, and G. Kucherov, Reconsidering the significance of genomic word frequencies, Trends in Genetics, vol.23, pp.543-546, 2007.

W. F. Doolittle and C. Sapienza, Selfish genes, the phenotype paradigm and genome evolution, Nature, vol.284, pp.601-604, 1980.

L. E. Orgel and F. H. Crick, Selfish DNA: the ultimate parasite, Nature, vol.284, pp.604-607, 1980.

P. L. Deininger, M. A. Batzer, and . Mammalian, Genome research, vol.12, pp.1455-1465, 2002.

M. A. Batzer and P. L. Deininger, Alu repeats and human genomic diversity, Nature Reviews Genetics, vol.3, pp.370-379, 2002.

A. Mighell, A. Markham, and P. Robinson, Alu sequences, FEBS letters, vol.417, pp.1-5, 1997.

P. L. Deininger and M. A. Batzer, Alu repeats and human disease, Molecular genetics and metabolism, vol.67, pp.183-193, 1999.

J. F. Brookfield, Selection on Alu sequences?, Current Biology, vol.11, pp.900-901, 2001.

C. W. Schmid, Alu: structure, origin, evolution, significance and function of one-tenth of human DNA. Progress in nucleic acid research and molecular biology, vol.53, p.283, 1996.

E. S. Lander, Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome, Nature, vol.409, pp.860-921, 2001.

A. G. Matera, U. Hellmann, M. F. Hintz, and C. W. Schmid, Recently transposed Alu repeats result from multiple source genes, Nucleic acids research, vol.18, pp.6019-6023, 1990.

M. R. Shen, M. A. Batzer, and P. L. Deininger, Evolution of the master Alu gene (s), Journal of Molecular Evolution, vol.33, pp.311-320, 1991.

P. L. Deininger, M. A. Batzer, C. A. Hutchison, and M. H. Edgell, Master genes in mammalian repetitive DNA amplification, Trends in Genetics, vol.8, pp.307-311, 1992.

J. E. Clough, J. A. Foster, M. Barnett, and H. A. Wichman, Computer simulation of transposable element evolution: random template and strict master models, Journal of molecular evolution, vol.42, pp.52-58, 1996.

L. J. Johnson and J. F. Brookfield, A test of the master gene hypothesis for interspersed repetitive DNA sequences, Molecular biology and evolution, vol.23, pp.235-239, 2006.

J. F. Brookfield and L. J. Johnson, The evolution of mobile DNAs: when will transposons create phylogenies that look as if there is a master gene, Genetics, vol.173, pp.1115-1123, 2006.

J. Xing, Alu element mutation spectra: molecular clocks and the effect of DNA methylation, Journal of molecular biology, vol.344, pp.675-682, 2004.

, Scientific RepoRts |, vol.6, p.30851

M. K. Konkel, Sequence analysis and characterization of active human alu subfamilies based on the 1000 genomes pilot project, Genome biology and evolution, vol.7, pp.2608-2622, 2015.

B. C. Arnold, , 1985.

R. Cordaux, D. J. Hedges, and M. A. Batzer, Retrotransposition of Alu elements: how many sources?, TRENDS in genetics, vol.20, pp.464-467, 2004.

E. T. Prak and H. H. Kazazian, Mobile elements and the human genome, Nature Reviews Genetics, vol.1, pp.134-144, 2000.

P. L. Deininger, J. V. Moran, M. A. Batzer, and H. H. Kazazian, Mobile elements and mammalian genome evolution. Current opinion in genetics & development, vol.13, pp.651-658, 2003.

D. J. Hedges, Differential Alu mobilization and polymorphism among the human and chimpanzee lineages, Genome research, vol.14, pp.1068-1075, 2004.

H. H. Kazazian, Mobile elements: drivers of genome evolution, Science, vol.303, pp.1626-1632, 2004.

V. Slagel, E. Flemington, V. Traina-dorge, H. Bradshaw, and P. Deininger, Clustering and subfamily relationships of the Alu family in the human genome, Molecular biology and evolution, vol.4, pp.19-29, 1987.

C. Willard, H. T. Nguyen, and C. W. Schmid, Existence of at least three distinct Alu subfamilies, Journal of molecular evolution, vol.26, pp.180-186, 1987.

J. Jurka and A. Milosavljevic, Reconstruction and analysis of human Alu genes, Journal of molecular evolution, vol.32, pp.105-121, 1991.

V. Kapitonov and J. Jurkal, The age of Alu subfamilies, Journal of molecular evolution, vol.42, pp.59-65, 1996.

A. L. Price, E. Eskin, and P. A. Pevzner, Whole-genome analysis of Alu repeat elements reveals complex evolutionary history, Genome research, vol.14, pp.2245-2252, 2004.

G. Churakov, A novel web-based tint application and the chronology of the primate Alu retroposon activity, BMC evolutionary biology, vol.10, p.376, 2010.

J. C. Willis and G. U. Yule, Some statistics of evolution and geographical distribution in plants and animals, and their significance, Nature, vol.109, pp.177-179, 1922.

M. Sheinman, F. Massip, and P. F. Arndt, Statistical Properties of Pairwise Distances between Leaves on a Random Yule Tree, PLoS One, vol.10, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02018975

E. Zuckerkandl and L. Pauling, Molecular disease, evolution and genetic heterogeneity, pp.189-225, 1962.

S. Kumar, Molecular clocks: four decades of evolution, Nature Reviews Genetics, vol.6, pp.654-662, 2005.

W. Li, M. Tanimura, and P. M. Sharp, An evaluation of the molecular clock hypothesis using mammalian DNA sequences, Journal of molecular evolution, vol.25, pp.330-342, 1987.

A. Scally and R. Durbin, Revising the human mutation rate: implications for understanding human evolution, Nature Reviews Genetics, vol.13, pp.745-753, 2012.

D. Labuda and G. Striker, Sequence conservation in Alu evolution, Nucleic acids research, vol.17, pp.2477-2491, 1989.

M. A. Batzer, Structure and variability of recently inserted Alu family members, Nucleic acids research, vol.18, pp.6793-6798, 1990.

G. E. Liu, C. Alkan, L. Jiang, S. Zhao, and E. E. Eichler, Comparative analysis of Alu repeats in primate genomes, Genome research, vol.19, pp.876-885, 2009.

S. B. Hedges, J. Marin, M. Suleski, M. Paymer, and S. Kumar, Tree of life reveals clock-like speciation and diversification, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.32, pp.835-845, 2015.

R. J. Britten, Evidence that most human Alu sequences were inserted in a process that ceased about 30 million years ago, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.91, pp.6148-6150, 1994.

F. Cunningham, Nucleic acids research, vol.43, pp.662-669, 2015.

D. Karolchik, The ucsc table browser data retrieval tool, Nucleic acids research, vol.32, pp.493-496, 2004.

G. Marçais and C. Kingsford, A fast, lock-free approach for efficient parallel counting of occurrences of k-mers, Bioinformatics, vol.27, pp.764-770, 2011.

A. B. Bortz, M. H. Kalos, and J. L. Lebowitz, A new algorithm for Monte Carlo simulation of Ising spin systems, Journal of Computational Physics, vol.17, pp.10-18, 1975.

A. Clauset, C. R. Shalizi, and M. E. Newman, Power-law distributions in empirical data, SIAM review, vol.51, pp.661-703, 2009.

A. George, F. Seber, and C. Wild, Nonlinear regression, 2003.

J. Austen, , 1996.