K. E. Wilk, C. A. Arrigo, and J. R. Andrews, Current concepts: the stabilizing structures of the glenohumeral joint, J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, vol.25, issue.6, p.9168344, 1997.

A. M. Halder, S. G. Kuhl, M. E. Zobitz, D. Larson, and K. N. An, Effects of the glenoid labrum and glenohumeral abduction on stability of the shoulder joint through concavity-compression: an in vitro study, J Bone Joint Surg Am, vol.83, issue.7, p.11451977, 2001.

H. E. Veeger and F. C. Van-der-helm, Shoulder function: the perfect compromise between mobility and stability, J Biomech, vol.40, issue.10, p.17222853, 2007.

M. J. Pagnani and R. F. Warren, Stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint, J Shoulder Elbow Surg, vol.3, issue.3, p.22959695, 1994.

L. J. Soslowsky, D. M. Malicky, and R. B. Blasier, Active and passive factors in inferior glenohumeral stabilization: a biomechanical model, J Shoulder Elbow Surg, vol.6, issue.4, p.9285877, 1997.

F. Steenbrink, J. H. De-groot, H. E. Veeger, F. C. Van-der-helm, and P. M. Rozing, Glenohumeral stability in simulated rotator cuff tears, J Biomech, vol.42, issue.11, p.19450803, 2009.

A. E. Engin and S. M. Chen, Statistical data base for the biomechanical properties of the human shoulder complex-II: Passive resistive properties beyond the shoulder complex sinus, J Biomech Eng, vol.108, issue.3, p.3747466, 1986.

R. F. Escamilla, K. Yamashiro, L. Paulos, and J. R. Andrews, Shoulder muscle activity and function in common shoulder rehabilitation exercises, Sports Med, vol.39, issue.8, p.19769415, 2009.

Y. Blache, L. Desmoulins, P. Allard, A. Plamondon, and M. Begon, Effects of height and load weight on shoulder muscle work during overhead lifting task, Ergonomics, vol.58, issue.5, p.25403553, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02127295

J. Yoon, A. Shiekhzadeh, and M. Nordin, The effect of load weight vs. pace on muscle recruitment during lifting, Appl Ergon, vol.43, issue.6, p.22475433, 2012.

R. B. Blasier, L. J. Soslowsky, D. M. Malicky, and M. L. Palmer, Posterior glenohumeral subluxation: active and passive stabilization in a biomechanical model, J Bone Joint Surg Am, vol.79, issue.3, p.9070535, 1997.

S. A. Hess, Functional stability of the glenohumeral joint, Man Ther, vol.5, issue.2, p.10903581, 2000.

F. Steenbrink, J. H. De-groot, H. E. Veeger, C. G. Meskers, M. A. Van-de-sande et al., Pathological muscle activation patterns in patients with massive rotator cuff tears, with and without subacromial anaesthetics, Man Ther, vol.11, issue.3, p.16890886, 2006.

J. E. Labriola, T. Q. Lee, R. E. Debski, and P. J. Mcmahon, Stability and instability of the glenohumeral joint: the role of shoulder muscles, J Shoulder Elbow Surg, vol.14, issue.1, pp.32-40, 2005.

S. R. Ward, E. R. Hentzen, L. H. Smallwood, R. K. Eastlack, K. A. Burns et al., Rotator cuff muscle architecture: implications for glenohumeral stability, Clin Orthop Relat Res, vol.448, p.16826111, 2006.
DOI : 10.1097/0000214443.87645.bb

B. T. Kelly, S. I. Backus, R. F. Warren, and R. J. Williams, Electromyographic analysis and phase definition of the overhead football throw, Am J Sports Med, vol.30, issue.6, p.12435650, 2002.

M. Kronberg, G. Nemeth, and L. A. Brostrom, Muscle activity and coordination in the normal shoulder. An electromyographic study, Clin Orthop Relat Res, issue.257, pp.76-85, 1990.

S. W. Alpert, M. M. Pink, F. W. Jobe, P. J. Mcmahon, and W. Mathiyakom, Electromyographic analysis of deltoid and rotator cuff function under varying loads and speeds, J Shoulder Elbow Surg, vol.9, issue.1, p.10717862, 2000.

D. H. Hawkes, O. Alizadehkhaiyat, A. C. Fisher, G. J. Kemp, M. M. Roebuck et al., Normal shoulder muscular activation and co-ordination during a shoulder elevation task based on activities of daily living: an electromyographic study, J Orthop Res, vol.30, issue.1, p.21674607, 2012.

F. C. Van-der-helm, A finite element musculoskeletal model of the shoulder mechanism, J Biomech, vol.27, issue.5, p.8027090, 1994.

D. Blana, J. G. Hincapie, E. K. Chadwick, and R. F. Kirsch, A musculoskeletal model of the upper extremity for use in the development of neuroprosthetic systems, J Biomech, vol.41, issue.8, p.18420213, 2008.

E. K. Chadwick, D. Blana, A. J. Van-den-bogert, and R. F. Kirsch, A real-time, 3-D musculoskeletal model for dynamic simulation of arm movements, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, vol.56, issue.4, p.19272926, 2009.

C. R. Dickerson, D. B. Chaffin, and R. E. Hughes, A mathematical musculoskeletal shoulder model for proactive ergonomic analysis, Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin, vol.10, issue.6, p.17891574, 2007.

P. K. Nielsen, L. Andersen, and K. Jorgensen, The muscular load on the lower back and shoulders due to lifting at different lifting heights and frequencies, Appl Ergon, vol.29, issue.6, p.9796790, 1998.

M. Jackson, B. Michaud, P. Tetreault, and M. Begon, Improvements in measuring shoulder joint kinematics, J Biomech, vol.45, issue.12, p.22748323, 2012.

H. J. Hermens, B. Freriks, C. Disselhorst-klug, and G. Rau, Development of recommendations for SEMG sensors and sensor placement procedures, J Electromyogr Kinesiol, vol.10, issue.5, p.11018445, 2000.

F. Dal-maso, P. Marion, and M. Begon, Optimal Combinations of Isometric Normalization Tests for the Production of Maximum Voluntary Activation of the Shoulder Muscles, Arch Phys Med Rehabil, vol.97, issue.9, p.26801059, 2016.

D. A. Winter, Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement, 2009.

D. Luca, C. J. Gilmore, L. D. Kuznetsov, M. Roy, and S. H. , Filtering the surface EMG signal: Movement artifact and baseline noise contamination, J Biomech, vol.43, issue.8, p.20206934, 2010.

R. Merletti, Standards for reporting EMG Data, J Electromyogr Kinesiol, vol.9, issue.1, pp.3-4, 1999.

T. Steele, A. Merryweather, C. R. Dickerson, and D. Bloswick, A computational study of shoulder muscle forces during pushing tasks, Int J Human Factors Modelling and Simulation, vol.4, issue.1, pp.1-22, 2013.

K. R. Holzbaur, W. M. Murray, and S. L. Delp, A model of the upper extremity for simulating musculoskeletal surgery and analyzing neuromuscular control, Ann Biomed Eng, vol.33, issue.6, p.16078622, 2005.

A. A. Nikooyan, H. E. Veeger, E. K. Chadwick, M. Praagman, and F. C. Helm, Development of a comprehensive musculoskeletal model of the shoulder and elbow, Med Biol Eng Comput, vol.49, issue.12, p.22038240, 2011.

D. G. Thelen, Adjustment of muscle mechanics model parameters to simulate dynamic contractions in older adults, J Biomech Eng, vol.125, issue.1, p.12661198, 2003.

B. Michaud and B. Begon, Thorax ellipsoid optimization based on scapula movements' area improves kinematic reconstruction of the scapula

. Montreal-canada2016, , p.26

A. Seth, R. Matias, A. P. Veloso, and S. L. Delp, A Biomechanical Model of the Scapulothoracic Joint to Accurately Capture Scapular Kinematics during Shoulder Movements, PLoS One, vol.11, issue.1, p.26734761, 2016.

P. M. Ludewig, V. Phadke, J. P. Braman, D. R. Hassett, C. J. Cieminski et al., Motion of the shoulder complex during multiplanar humeral elevation, J Bone Joint Surg Am, vol.91, issue.2, p.19181982, 2009.

S. L. Delp, F. C. Anderson, A. S. Arnold, P. Loan, A. Habib et al., OpenSim: open-source software to create and analyze dynamic simulations of movement, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, vol.54, issue.11, p.18018689, 2007.

S. Lippitt and F. Matsen, Mechanisms of glenohumeral joint stability, Clin Orthop Relat Res, issue.291, p.8504601, 1993.

K. M. Steele, M. S. Demers, M. H. Schwartz, and S. L. Delp, Compressive tibiofemoral force during crouch gait, Gait Posture, vol.35, issue.4, p.22206783, 2012.

Y. Blache, T. Creveaux, R. Dumas, L. Cheze, and I. Rogowski, Glenohumeral contact force during flat and topspin tennis forehand drives, Sports Biomech, vol.16, issue.1, p.27595163, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01926636

Y. Blache and B. Begon, Influence of shoulder kinematic estimate on joint and muscle mechanics predicted by musculoskeletal model, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02127341

L. Huang, J. Zhuang, and Y. Zhang, The application of computer musculoskeletal modeling and simulation to investigate compressive tibiofemoral force and muscle functions in obese children, Comput Math Methods Med, p.24288573, 2013.

M. Noguchi, J. N. Chopp, S. P. Borgs, and C. R. Dickerson, Scapular orientation following repetitive prone rowing: implications for potential subacromial impingement mechanisms, J Electromyogr Kinesiol, vol.23, issue.6, p.24055533, 2013.

C. Belaise, D. Maso, F. Michaud, B. Mombaur, K. Begon et al., An EMG-marker tracking optimisation for estimating muscle forces. Multibody System Dynamics, 2017.

H. E. Veeger, B. Yu, K. N. An, and R. H. Rozendal, Parameters for modeling the upper extremity, J Biomech, vol.30, issue.6, p.9165401, 1997.

A. A. Nikooyan, H. E. Veeger, P. Westerhoff, F. Graichen, G. Bergmann et al., Validation of the Delft Shoulder and Elbow Model using in-vivo glenohumeral joint contact forces, J Biomech, vol.43, issue.15, p.20655049, 2010.

, On the stability of walking systems, International Workshop on Humanoid and Human Friendly Robotics, 2002.

J. Tsukuba,

Y. Blache, D. Maso, F. Desmoulins, L. Plamondon, A. Begon et al., Superficial shoulder muscle co-activations during lifting tasks: Influence of lifting height, weight and phase, J Electromyogr Kinesiol, vol.25, issue.2, p.25483204, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02127290

D. Wattanaprakornkul, I. Cathers, M. Halaki, and K. A. Ginn, The rotator cuff muscles have a direction specific recruitment pattern during shoulder flexion and extension exercises, J Sci Med Sport, vol.14, issue.5, p.21333595, 2011.

S. Sangwan, R. A. Green, and N. F. Taylor, Stabilizing characteristics of rotator cuff muscles: a systematic review, Disabil Rehabil, vol.37, issue.12, p.25116629, 2015.

P. Heuberer, A. Kranzl, B. Laky, W. Anderl, and C. Wurnig, Electromyographic analysis: shoulder muscle activity revisited, Arch Orthop Trauma Surg, vol.135, issue.4, p.25720847, 2015.

C. G. Meskers, J. H. De-groot, H. J. Arwert, L. A. Rozendaal, and P. M. Rozing, Reliability of force direction dependent EMG parameters of shoulder muscles for clinical measurements, Clin Biomech, vol.19, issue.9, pp.913-933, 2004.

C. S. Moriguchi, L. Carnaz, . De-miranda, . Lc, R. W. Marklin et al., Biomechanical analysis of loading/ unloading a ladder on a truck, Work, vol.41, pp.2492-2497, 2012.