B. Abid, R. Douard, N. Hentati, A. Ghorbel, V. Delmas et al., L'enseignement de l'anatomie entre la craie et la p edagogie num erique. R esultats d'une etude comparative, Morphologie, vol.91, pp.107-108, 2007.

S. Ainsworth and N. Vanlabeke, Multiple forms of dynamic representation, Learn Instruct, vol.14, pp.241-255, 2004.

. Anatomie and . Lyon, , vol.1, 2014.

M. Betrancourt, J. Bauer-morrison, and B. Tversky, Les animations sont-elles vraiment plus efficaces? Revue d, Intelligence Artificielle, vol.14, pp.149-166, 2001.

D. Bodemer, R. Ploetzner, I. Feuerlein, and H. Spada, The active integration of information during learning with dynamic and interactive visualisations, Learn Instruct, vol.14, pp.325-341, 2004.

J. Brizon and C. J. 1953a, Les Feuillets d'anatomie. Fascicules II: Ost eologie du membre inf erieur. Pour la preparation des concours hospitaliers et des examens de la Facult e de M edecine, vol.115

J. Brizon and J. Castaing, Les Feuillets d'anatomie. Fascicules III: Arthrologie des membres (sup erieur et inf erieur), vol.104, 1953.

J. Brizon and J. Castaing, Les Feuillets d'anatomie. Fascicules V: Muscles du membre inf erieur. Pour la preparation des concours hospitaliers et des examens de la Facult e de M edecine, vol.130, 1953.

P. Chandler, The crucial role of cognitive processes in the design of dynamic visualizations, Learn Instruct, vol.14, pp.353-357, 2004.

C. Dilullo, P. Coughlin, D. Angelo, M. Mcguinness, M. Bandle et al., Anatomy in a new curriculum: Facilitating the learning of gross anatomy using web access streaming dissection videos, J Vis Commun Med, vol.29, pp.99-108, 2006.

A. X. Garg, G. Norman, and L. Sperotable, How medical students learn spatial anatomy, Lancet, vol.357, pp.363-364, 2001.

N. A. Granger and D. Calleson, The impact of alternating dissection on student performance in a medical anatomy course: Are dissection videos an effective substitute for actual dissection?, Clin Anat, vol.20, pp.315-321, 2007.

A. Guillot, S. Champely, C. Batier, P. Thiriet, and C. Collet, Relationship between spatial abilities, mental rotation and functional anatomy learning, Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract, vol.12, pp.491-507, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02345821

G. B. Hanna, S. M. Shimi, and A. Cuschieri, Randomised study of influence of two-dimensional versus three-dimensional imaging on performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Lancet, vol.351, pp.248-251, 1998.

M. Hegarty, Mental animation: Inferring motion from static displays of mechanical systems, J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cognit, vol.18, pp.1084-1102, 1992.

M. Hegarty, Dynamic visualizations and learning: Getting to the difficult questions, Learn Instruct, vol.14, pp.343-351, 2004.

M. Hegarty, M. Keehner, C. Cohen, D. R. Montello, and Y. Lippa, The role of spatial cognition in medicine: Applications for selecting and training professionals, pp.285-316, 2007.

M. Hegarty, S. Kriz, and C. Cate, The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems, Cognit Instruct, vol.21, pp.325-360, 2003.

R. Hopkins, G. Regehr, and T. D. Wilson, Exploring the changing learning environment of the gross anatomy lab, Acad Med, vol.86, pp.883-888, 2011.

N. Hoyek, C. Collet, O. Rastello, P. Fargier, P. Thiriet et al., Enhancement of mental rotation abilities and its effect on anatomy learning, Teach Learn Med, vol.21, pp.201-206, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01743940

M. Keehner, M. Hegarty, C. Cohen, P. Khooshabeh, and D. R. Montello, Spatial reasoning with external visualizations: What matters is what you see, not whether you interact, Cognit Sci, vol.32, pp.1099-1132, 2008.

M. K. Khalil, T. E. Johnson, and C. H. Lamar, Comparison of computer-based and paper-based imagery strategies in learning anatomy, Clin Anat, vol.18, pp.457-464, 2005.

R. K. Lowe, Animation and learning: selective processing of information in dynamic graphics, Learn Instruct, vol.13, pp.247-262, 2003.

R. Lowe, Interrogation of a dynamic visualization during learning, Learn Instruct, vol.14, pp.257-274, 2004.

R. K. Lowe and J. M. Boucheix, Supporting relational processing in complex animated diagrams, IEEE Proceedings, Diagrams, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science, pp.391-394, 2008.

R. S. Lufler, A. C. Zumwalt, C. A. Romney, and T. M. Hoagland, Effect of visualspatial ability on medical students' performance in a gross anatomy course, Anat Sci Educ, vol.5, pp.3-9, 2012.

W. Mahmud, O. Hyder, J. Butt, and A. Aftab, Dissection videos do not improve anatomy examination scores, Anat Sci Educ, vol.4, pp.16-21, 2011.

R. E. Mayer, Multimedia Learning, vol.318, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00702927

R. E. Mayer and R. Moreno, Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning, Educ Psychol, vol.38, pp.43-52, 2003.

S. J. Moorman, Prof-in-a-box: Using internet-videoconferencing to assist students in the gross anatomy laboratory, BMC Med Educ, vol.6, p.55, 2006.

N. Nguyen, A. J. Nelson, and T. D. Wilson, Computer visualizations: Factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension, Anat Sci Educ, vol.5, pp.98-108, 2012.

D. T. Nicholson, C. Chalk, W. R. Funnell, and S. J. Daniel, Can virtual reality improve anatomy education? A randomised controlled study of a computer-generated three-dimensional anatomical ear model, Med Educ, vol.40, pp.1081-1087, 2006.

D. A. Risucci, Visual spatial perception and surgical competence, Am J Surg, vol.184, pp.291-295, 2002.

V. A. Roach, M. G. Brandt, C. C. Moore, and T. D. Wilson, Is three-dimensional videography the cutting edge of surgical skill acquisition?, Anat Sci Educ, vol.5, pp.138-145, 2012.

K. Rochford, Spatial learning disabilities and underachievement among university anatomy students, Med Educ, vol.19, pp.13-26, 1985.

V. Saxena, P. Natarajan, P. S. O'sullivan, and S. Jain, Effect of the use of instructional anatomy videos on student performance, Anat Sci Educ, vol.1, pp.159-165, 2008.

S. Schwan and R. Riempp, The cognitive benefits of interactive videos: Learning to tie nautical knots, Learn Instruct, vol.14, pp.293-305, 2004.

S. Tan, A. Hu, T. Wilson, H. Ladak, P. Haase et al., Role of a computergenerated three-dimensional laryngeal model in anatomy teaching for advanced learners, J Laryngol Otol, vol.126, pp.395-401, 2012.

C. L. Theoret, E. N. Carmel, and S. Bernier, Why dissection videos should not replace cadaver prosections in the gross veterinary anatomy curriculum: Results from a comparative study, J Vet Med Educ, vol.34, pp.151-156, 2007.

P. Thiriet, Scientific formation of African physical education professors: Contribution to didactic of the anatomy and physiology, vol.298, 1982.

B. Tversky, J. B. Morrison, and M. Betrancourt, Animation: Can it facilitate?, Int J Hum Comput Stud, vol.57, pp.247-262, 2002.

S. Vandenberg and A. Kuse, Mental rotation, a group test of 3-D spatial visualization, Percept Mot Skills, vol.47, pp.599-604, 1978.

M. A. Vorstenbosch, T. P. Klaassen, A. R. Donders, J. G. Kooloos, S. M. Bolhuis et al., Learning anatomy enhances spatial ability, Anat Sci Educ, vol.6, pp.257-262, 2013.

K. R. Wanzel, S. J. Hamstra, M. F. Caminiti, D. L. Anastakis, E. D. Grober et al., Visual-spatial ability correlates with efficiency of hand motion and successful surgical performance, Surgery, vol.134, pp.750-757, 2003.

H. A. Witkin, P. K. Oltman, E. Raskin, and S. A. Karp, A Manual for the Embedded Figures Tests, vol.32, 1971.

C. Zahn, B. Barquero, and S. Schwan, Learning with hyperlinked videosdesign criteria and efficient strategies for using audiovisual hypermedia, Learn Instruct, vol.14, pp.275-291, 2004.